North in Turmoil: The Saka and Pahlava Waves (100 BCE–100 CE)

They were a confederation of pesky tribal marauders who constantly raided Northern China. Tired of the ever-present threat from these barbarians, the little kingdoms of Northern China – Qin, Wei, Zhao, Qi, Han, Yan and Zhongshan – pushed back by building a series of fortifications to block out the menace. Over centuries, these fortifications would evolve into the Great Wall of China. But did you know that this pushback by China and the fortifications it created had an impact on faraway India?
At the beginning of the first millennium of the Common Era, North India was in turmoil. The central authority of the Mauryans had declined and a number of smaller kingdoms and principalities had emerged. Taking advantage of this, the Indo-Greek or the Yavanas had established their power in North-Western India, making an audacious bid for the prized city of Pataliputra.

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