Jalebi - Swirls of History



Call it what you will - Zlabia, Zalabiya, Zoolabiya , Jilbi, Jilapi or Zelapi, the sweet and syrupy swirls of flavored sugar dripping dough, have been relished for nearly a 1000 years.

While its difficult to pin point its actual origin, we have some clues .


Jalebi has been one of the most popular sweetmeats across Asia and Africa for many centuries

The Oxford Companion to Food traces the earliest mention of the recipe of this savoury to the 13th century CE when it was listed in Al Baghdadi’s cookery book. The Oxford Companion also draws some geographical linkages. The jalebi is known in Iran as the zoolabiya or zulubiya and it is prepared on special occasions and distributed to the poor during the month of Ramzan. In Lebanon , they have the zellabiya (shaped like a finger rather than swirl). There are also versions of the jalebi found in Turkey, Greece and Cyprus, indicating the wide fame of this sumptuous treat!

Jalebi is a part of an <i>iftar</i> meal in Iran
Jalebi is a part of an iftar meal in Iran|Wikimedia Commons

The earliest recorded reference to the jalebi in India is from the 15th century CE. There is a reference to the jalebi in a Jain work Priyamkarnrpakatha by Jinasura, which is believed to have been composed in 1450 CE. The jalebi also finds mention in later works including the 17th-century classic, Bhojan-kutuhala by Raghunatha, though under a different name.


There are many references to jalebi in ancient texts, with details of the recipe mentioned

In an article written in the Times of India, late journalist Dileep Padgaonkar, refers to a paper by PK Gode, an Indologist at the Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute in Pune. In the paper, Gode states that he found a mention of the jalebi in a work on cookery called the ‘Gunyagunabodhini’ which dates back to before 1600 CE. Written in Sanskrit verse form, it lists the materials used in the sweetmeat and explains the different methods to prepare it. They are almost identical to the materials and methods used in making jalebis in India today.


Across the world, jalebi is known by many different names like zlabia, zalabiya, zoolabiya , jilbi, jilapi or zelapi

While the jalebi obviously traveled through the old trade routes to make its way across the region, there are many variations to it, with ingredients that vary as well. For example in some parts of the country, the batter used to make jalebi consists of urad dal ( a kind of lentil) and rice flour with a little besan or ground gram and wheat flour. In some other parts, it also includes semolina and baking powder. In Bengal, dairy products like chhena ( similar to curd) and khoa are added to the jalebi.

The way it is consumed varies as well. In Afghanistan, it is served with fish during the winter months!

The jalebi is a testimony to the close cultural links we all have, but sadly, this has not been used to our advantage. Much more can be done to promote this much loved dessert - Look at what Europe has done with its chocolate!

Wikimedia Commons
Jalebi caviar at Masala Library
Jalebi caviar at Masala Library|Wikimedia Commons

Did You Know

Modern styles of cooking like fusion and molecular gastronomy have led to the creation of innovative variants like jalebi caviar and apple jalebi. While the jalebi caviar is one of the signature dishes at Zorawar Kalra’s Masala Library, apple jalebi can be found at places like Café Lota in New Delhi.

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